International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. A diagnosis classification coding scheme, managed by HCFA. This is often used as input to the calculation of DRGs and other patient classification schemes.
WHO has developed a 10th Revision (ICD-10).


ICD-9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CMExternal Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions)). These are extension to ICD9 procedure codes developed by HCFA for institutional billing.


ICD-10External Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions) is much larger than ICD-9. The number of categories available for the classification is significantly enlarged and further detail is available including ambulatory and managed care encounter information, expanded injury codes, the combination diagnosis/symptoms codes to reduce the number of codes needed to fully describe a condition.
The new code is six characters long and incorporates common 4th and 5th digit subclassifications.
At present (ca. mid 1999) ICD-10 is widely used in Europe. In the U.S., however, migration to ICD-10 is complicated by the fact that ICD-9-CM is embedded in hospital billing systems. The goal is to have ICD-10-CM in use for morbidity diagnoses in 2001.


The Intensive Care Unit is where patients in critical conditions are taken for constant observation and treatment.


Integrated Delivery Network. A type of OWA. Also called IHDN, IHN, and IHS.


Brand name of a Practice Management System.


See Integrated Healthcare Delivery Network. Also called IDN, IHN, and IHS.


Integrated Healthcare Network. Also called IDN, IHDN, and IHS.


Integrated Health System. Also called IDN, IHDN, and IHN.


Intramuscularly. A route of administration.

Indemnity Health Plan

Also called fee-for-service, these were the only plans prior to the advent of managed care. With indemnity plans, members pay a pre-determined percentage of the cost of healthcare services, and the insurance carrier pays the rest (e.g., 20/80), after a deductible is met. The fees for services are defined by the providers and vary from one to the next. Members can choose their healthcare providers without restrictions.

Independent Practice Association

Under this structure, physicians practicing in their own offices participate in a prepaid, capitated healthcare plan. The physicians charge agreed upon rates to enrolled patients and bill the IPA on a fee-for-service basis.

Individually Identifiable Health Information

As defined by the Massachusetts Health Data ConsortiumExternal Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions), a wrongful disclosure is “Any information that is created or received by a health care provider, plan, employer, or clearinghouse that relates to the past, present, or future health or condition of an individual that identifies the individual or can be used to identify the individual.”
HIPAA imposes penalties for wrongful disclosure of Individually Identifieable Health Information in an unsecured manner of up to US$250,000 and 10 years in prison.


A person who is admitted to a hospital.

Inpatient Process

Description of inpatient process, 
1. Patient is admitted to hospital.
2. Drugs are ordered by the attending physician or one or more consulting physicians/specialists. Drugs are issued by the pharmacy. Drugs are administered to the patient.
3. At the end of every day, charges for drugs are entered into the financial system.
4. The patient is discharged (or transferred). The RRA codes the discharge diagnosis as ICD-9, and the corresponding procedures as CPT codes.
5. From this information, DRG and APR-DRG codes are calculated by a “Grouper” (i.e., software that assists in assigning a discharge diagnosis, based on procedures and interim diagnoses).
6. The attending physician reviews and approves these codes at an Attest Station.

Insurance Policy

A contract with an insurance company that specifies the terms and conditions for all covered services.

Integrated Healthcare Delivery Network

An IHDN is an affiliation of healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals, clinics, medical groups). These usually join together to improve performance (e.g., financial, operational) on a broad spectrum of healthcare services. Systems and operations are often consolidated in the process of aggregating these organizations. This allows one institution to offer and coordinate a full spectrum of services, from inpatient acute care facilities to extended care at home.
An IHDN can also span the spectrum of formal structures to non-owned groups of providers working together in a less structured arrangement to deliver healthcare. Also called IHN, or IHS.
One way or another, an IHDN brings integration and coordination of patient care accross previously independent units. This includes different degrees of vertical and horizontal integration, as well as clinical and operational integration.

Intensive Care Unit

The ICU is where patients in critical conditions are taken for constant observation and treatment.

Interface Engines

Interface Engines. For example,

Internet Health Services

The full range of services and activities available on a consumer health web site. Examples include the sale of health care products, delivery of health care services and health information, specialized health information searches, self-assessment tools and activities, bulletin boards, chat rooms with and without participation by health professionals, and opportunities for relationships and communication with health care professionals and health plans.
[Source: Hi-Ethics CoalitionExternal Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions)]

Inventory Control

The activities and techniques of maintaining the stock of inventory items at desired levels.

Inventory Investment

The amount of capital that is tied up in inventory.

Inventory Items

Items whose stock amounts require tracking. These include disposables (e.g., sutures) and reusable items (e.g., instruments).

Inventory Policy

A definite statement, by item, of the philosophy of management on inventories (e.g., take advantage of all discounts offered, order in multiples of 100).

Inventory Turnover

The number of times that an inventory “turns over” or cycles during the year.

Inventory Usage

The value or the number of units of an inventory item consumed over a period of time.

Inventory Valuation

The value of the inventory at its cost.


The (US) National Academy of SciencesInstitute of MedicineExternal Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions).


Inpatient. Usually used as an adjective, as in “IP records” (i.e., the medical records containing information associated with a specific inpatient service path).


See Independent Practice Association.


Institutional Review Board. Under the HIPAA rules, patient identifiable information can be collected for research without patient approval. The research, however, must be IRB Aproved. Otherwise, it can only be shared if explicit patient approval is obtained or if approved by a privacy board which meets specific requirements.
The privacy board or IRB approval must meet specific requirements including, among others,
It involves minimal risk to the subjects,
It will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the subjects,
Itcould not practically be conducted without the waiver,
It is of sufficient importance so as to outweigh the intrusion of the privacy of an individual
There is an adequate plan to protect the identifiers from improper user and disclosure
There is an adequate plan to destroy the identifiers at the earliest opportunity
[Source: Courtesy of William M. Miaoulis, Information Security Officer, UAB Health System, 205.934.6000, bmiaouli@uabmc.edu.


International Society for PharmacoepidemiologyExternal Page Policy 
(click to see policy and instructions).


Departments requisition goods from general stores or central supply, which then issues the goods to the departments.


Drug products. In particular, an item is the elementary particle of all pharmaceutical transactions. In the case of pharmaceuticals, each item is identified by its NDC.

Item Universe

The list of all items that an IHS could purchase. An initial instance of this list may be the union of the following sets of items:
all the items that the IHS ever purchased
all the items on all the contracts that the IHS has
all items on all formularies that are used by the IHS.